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April 22, 2024

Shark-spotting drones? How about an ecological reconnaissance?

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Filomeno Patacsil riding 800 lb tiger shark as he frees the animal from fishing nets. Photo  Honolulu Advertiser, 1957
Filomeno Patacsil riding 800 lb tiger shark as he frees the animal from fishing nets. Photo Honolulu Advertiser, 1957

Mary Gardner

Tracking large sharks sounds good on paper, but what’s required for the sake of beachgoers, to stalk these marine predators and report their whereabouts?

Queensland’s Surf Lifesavers on the beaches of North Stradbroke Island are testing small, unmanned aircraft (drones) to collect such information. In New South Wales, the Department of Primary Industries is also running experiments. But in 2012, the same department published a study testing the usefulness of aerial beach patrols done by pilots in helicopters or small planes. Such patrols spot very few sharks, about one per hundred square kilometres. This is most likely a serious underestimate. Can mechanical observers, peering through the same murky water and to varying depths, do any better? Before speeding along with some technological fix, let’s take an ecological reconnaissance of white, bull and tiger sharks.

Great whites

Australian great white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are not common and in decline. Marine biologist Berry Bruce tagged 500 individuals in Southern Australia around Neptune Islands. A decade of monitoring reveals that these great whites often make great annual migrations. In the winter they travel along the coast up to south-east Queensland and then return south during September and October. This tracks the migration route used by humpbacks who hug the coastal shallows to protect vulnerable young against shark attacks.

As great whites attack from below, they start at depth and accelerate vertically to ram and stun their prey. If they are only curious and exploring an object in the sea, they swim up to it sideways to ‘mouth’ and ‘taste’ it. That’s why specialists say people in shallows are not the usual prey of great whites. Unfortunately the animals are too strong for such investigations to be harmless. In one behaviour study, great whites will test and then eat a fat, high food value pig but test and refuse leaner sheep, who, like people, carry much less fat.

Bull sharks

Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) is classified as ‘near threatened’. But it is more often seen because the adults tend to patrol shallow coastal waters often near the mouths of estuaries and rivers. The young use the upstream waters. They are ambush hunters of murky waters, whose strategy is ‘bump and bite’. They scavenge through cloudy waters chasing contrasting colours, which could be something edible. They are also territorial.

Tiger sharks

The jaws of this tiger shark, caught years ago at Brunswick Heads, are still on display. Photo Mary Gardner

Tiger sharks (Galeocerdo cuvier) are another ‘near threatened’ species, who live in the same zone as bull sharks but travel further and range deeper. They are solitary hunters who also ‘bump and bite’, coming inshore at night.

These three sharks are not attacking more people now than before. There are simply many more people in the water. Sensible precautions are to avoid murky water, especially a day or two after rain. Avoid the water at dawn, dusk or dark. Swim or surf as part of a group. Avoid the water where seabirds or dolphins are feeding. Sharks often join them. If you see a dangerous shark, keep watching and quietly get to shore. Some specialists, including Australian filmmaker Val Taylor, report that punching back at sharks that bump you is so surprising to these top predators that they back off. They don’t expect a challenge.

Much of this ecological information comes from research using tags: either acoustic, satellite or ‘pop up’ devices. These devices are expensive, complicated and invasive for the sharks themselves. Some tagging interferes with the shark’s survival skills. Interestingly, some types of tagging projects improve when they include the sightings of divers, fishers and other observers with first-hand experience of a marine place.

Knowing a place, much as knowing a person, offers unexpected relationships. In Hawaiian lagoons and beaches, traditional shark keepers knew the territories and movements of their local and migratory sharks. They fed and petted them. They swam with or rode on them. They felt recognition and respect was mutual. They also expected help with fishing from these, their local gods.

Technology offers great data, within sharp limits. But what more could we know and be if we deeply engaged with our marine places? What more than fearsome is part of the personality of a shark?

SharkSmart app: https://itunes.apple.com/au/app/sharksmart/id915621811?mt=8

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  1. Why do I sense another ‘save the sharks’ movement starting, based on resistance to swimmers gaining any kind of advantage over prowling sharks?
    Any technology that stops some parent or child being killed by these creatures is only to be praised and encouraged.

  2. I was a full time suffer for most of my life until a road accident made it impossible to continue,. I am a keen observer of the marine environment.
    I have always thought that as mentioned in this artical that there are 2 periods of the year were migration occurs with wales ,sharks and many fish passing close to our shores.
    It would seem to me that if any patroling /observation to protect swimers was to be used to protect people, that it could be done during these 2 times a year only.
    Education on a large scale of these 2 times of migration to the population may very well help protect people from attack.


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